How to Install FreeBSD?

One of the first distributions that comes to mind when talking about the BSD kernel FreeBSDfrom our regular computers to servers and from there PlayStation It is one of the operating systems used in a wide range from game consoles such as It is highly preferred in corporate structures with its strong network structure, stability and problem-free structure. macOSwith the basis Darwinin the core and On the TCP/IP infrastructure of WindowsDid you know that he himself uses BSD codes?

When we look at its history, BSD, which was first developed by the University of California Berkeley using AT&T’s original UNIX source codes, later developed enough to become a system kernel on its own. Ironically because it is open source and free, it has been seen that AT&T sues BSD developers by showing the developers their own original code.

Although it is often compared to Linux, it has a completely separate structure. The C libraries it uses and the various utilities almost all consist of software developed by Berkeley instead of GNU. When it comes to this kernel, several distributions are usually mentioned. The most known of them NetBSDand FreeBSD is . While NetBSD is known for being one of the first distributions introduced in 1993 and supporting 57 different architectures, FreeBSD can be said to be ahead in terms of sophistication and user-friendliness.

In this article, we will try to explain in detail how to install FreeBSD. Because we realized that there are no Turkish resources on how to install FreeBSD in a way that the end user can use, or the existing ones are written for different purposes rather than being for normal users. If you read our article in detail from the beginning to the end, you will have a lot of information about the installation and basic usage. Without further ado, let’s start.

Before we can install, we first need to obtain the appropriate ISO file from FreeBSD’s official website. For this we go to the relevant website and “Download FreeBSD”or “Get FreeBSD” Click on one of the buttons. Both take us to the same page.

Here, while giving us some brief information in English, we see the version information and processor architectures of the file that we will download a little below. Those who want to experience only pre-installed virtual machines “Virtual Machine Images”While you can get various types of disk images from the option, they will install on devices such as Raspberry Pi. “SD Card Images”They should choose the appropriate architecture from the section.

Since we will install on our normal computer, we will take a look at the ISO files in the “Installer Images” section. Here, 10 different processor architectures are mentioned, but we only use 3 of them in today’s computers in our homes. These; We can say “amd64”, “i386” and “armv7”. i386 ie Intel 386 architecture 32-bit, AMD64 desktop side 64-bit (x86-x64), armv7 shows that it is compatible with ARM architecture. If you are not using a new generation Apple Mac device and have a post 2003 processor, your computer is 64-bit supported. Therefore, the system we will install will be “amd64”. Let’s click on that and continue.

freebsd indirme asamasi

On the page, we see that there are different files in ISO, “.XZ” and CHECKSUM formats. What interests us is only the ones with the “.iso” extension. For this reason, we have two options, “disc1” and “dvd1”. While “disc1” contains the most basic packages for installing a system, for “dvd1” we can say that it contains many packages designed for environments that are unlikely to be connected to the internet. We don’t need the “dvd1” image, “disc1” is a good enough image to install and use the system. Let’s select it and start the download.

freebsd imaj ve dogrulama indirme 1 e1656401267638
After the download is finished, we need to verify the integrity of the file just before we print it to our USB memory and proceed with the installation. We will do this by comparing the unique hash values ​​for each file. Again, we come to the same page and click on the file that starts with “CHECKSUM.SHA256” and download it.

freebsd imaj ve dogrulama indirme 2 e1656401290199
If you are using a Linux system under normal conditions, you can directly check the integrity of your ISO with this file. But since I’m currently using Windows, I open the relevant “checksum” file with notepad and find the original hash values ​​I’m looking for.

Afterwards, all I have to do is right-click on the ISO file and calculate the SHA256 value from the 7-Zip CRC SHA menu and compare the two values. If the value in the notepad is the same as what 7-Zip shows, our file has been downloaded properly. Now we can print to our USB memory and proceed to the installation phase.

sha256 dogrulama

When we are going to install an operating system, regardless of which one, via old-style DVD or USB, we need to burn the ISO file we have obtained in a “bootable” way. Otherwise, since our computer does not start from any bootable media, it is not possible for us to perform the installation.

For BSD and most Linux distributions the only software I recommend for write to memory Win32DiskImager I can say. I don’t really recommend it for printing non-Windows images, as I’ve seen many Linux and BSD installation memories mistyped, which I’ve handled with Rufus and BalenaEtcher before. If you have different programs that you have experienced before, you can also choose them. For this reason, I did the narration on Win32DiskImager.

Let’s get Win32DiskImager from SourceForge where it is officially published and install it.

7 win32 disk imager indirme

If the program opens after installation, close it. If you haven’t connected your USB memory yet, plug it into the computer and run it again. Although Win32DiskImager detects the mounted memory itself and chooses the appropriate letter for the drive where the operation will take place, it is still useful to check in case your other disks are deleted.

10 win32 disk imager arayuz

When we are sure of everything, we press the folder sign to burn our ISO file. We see the usual file selection screen, but here we see that only “.img” extensions can be marked. However, our job is with ISO, that is, we change the part we marked to “*.*” and choose our pattern. Don’t worry, Win32DiskImager is capable of burning ISOs well.

iso secimi

Now all we have to do is press the Write button to start the writing process. After confirming the warning that all data on the USB memory will be deleted, it would be best to wait until the process is finished without touching the computer or the USB memory. The time may vary depending on the speed of your computer and memory. With USB 3.0 it will take an average of 1-2 minutes.

We are now completely ready to install.

After printing our USB stick, let’s remove it and then turn off our computer. Before turning it back on, let’s make sure that the internet cable is plugged in, as the flash memory we prepared and if we are using a wireless connection, our Wi-Fi card will probably not be recognized during the installation.

In order to start the installation, at this stage, we need to “boot” from the media we have prepared, just like installing Windows. For this you need to access the boot menu. The keys you need to press to access the menu may vary depending on the motherboard manufacturer and model. If you do not know which key to use on your own computer, you can take a look at our “Boot Menu Hotkeys Database” topic that we have prepared.

I preferred to perform the operations through the virtual machine, because it is not possible to shoot high quality images when installing on my real computer. There will be no difference while you are installing.

After performing the boot process, you should see a screen like the one below. Let’s wait here patiently for 10 seconds. It will direct us to the installation screen.

1 freebsd boot asamasi

Finally, we are in the installer, let’s go to Install by using the right-left or TAB keys and continue with “ENTER”.

2 freebsd kurulum

On this screen it tells us that we have to choose our keyboard layout. Whichever language and type of keyboard we are using, let’s go to that language with the up and down arrow keys and mark it with the “SPACE” key and say “ENTER”. I choose this because I use Turkish Q keyboard.

3 freebsd klavye secimi

After choosing the keyboard layout, we need to test it to make sure that the selection is successful. Let’s continue by saying “ENTER” and try it. If the keys we press are written properly, there is no problem. But some Turkish characters ? may appear in the form.

4 freebsd klavye secimi 2

5 freebsd klavye test

It took us back to the keyboard layout menu, we come to the top Continue with tr.kbd keymap option and say “ENTER”. Of course, make sure that the selection menu at the bottom is in the Select section. The option that says Cancel cancels our selections. You can navigate in this section with “TAB”.”

6 freebsd klavye secimi devam

The setup tells us that we need to type a hostname so that our machine can be identified on the network. If you are in a corporate environment and are included in a domain, you can write what your IT administrator says here, and if you are in an ordinary home environment, you can write anything you want except the name you will specify for the user account in the future. I wrote my name and surname as akilgundogan.

7 freebsd hostname

Maybe FreeBSD We have come to one of the places where we need to pay the most attention while establishing it. There are 7 options before us. If we briefly explain what these are;

  • base-dbg : We can say that under normal conditions, it is the structure that creates the “base” system. The “-dbg” phrase added at the end indicates that if you are going to debugging, you should also install this option. We don’t need such a thing right now, since we don’t have the luxury of not installing “base” by default, the normal version is not offered as an option here.
  • kernel-dbg : We call low-level software “kernel” that helps code fragments run on hardware in the operating system. An operating system will not work without a kernel. Here, I chose to choose “kernel-dbg” because it shows us the extra debug outputs, because the outputs will help us a lot if we experience any errors.
  • lib32and lib32-dbg : Unlike Windows, x64 (x86-x64/AMD64) operating systems using BSD and Linux kernels need additional compatibility libraries to run 32-bit software. In FreeBSD this is provided with the help of “lib32”. If you do not check this option, you cannot use 32-bit programs. The “-dbg” one offers debug outputs like the others, we don’t need to install it.
  • ports : In FreeBSD, the structure similar to the package manager that allows us to install software compatible and properly is called the “ports tree”. It is useful to mark for a smooth installation and experience.
  • src: It includes the directory tree that generates the source codes of the system, I personally think there is no need.
  • tests: I don’t want it installed as we don’t need any tests.

For a normal user, the following markings will be sufficient. Then let’s continue with “ENTER”.

8 freebsd kurulum secimi

We came to the disk configuration part. There are 4 options, we will only choose one of the first two. ZFS file system Those who want to use can choose the first one. Since I do not prefer to use ZFS, I will choose the second option, Auto (UFS). Note that the automatic disk configuration option will wipe your entire disk. If you are going to do a “dual boot” style installation, you should create the necessary partitions in the Manual tab.

I just want to install FreeBSD directly. Therefore, I will perform the steps to install only one operating system.

9 freebsd disk secimi

We got a warning saying that our disk, which was showing as da0, will be reset to create partitions suitable for FreeBSD and our files will be completely deleted. If you are going to install different partitions or “dual boot”, you can say Partition, if you are going to erase the disk normally and continue, you can say Entire Disk. I just reset and continue.

10 freebsd disk secimi uyari

We need to choose the type of my partition. If your computer UEFI You need to choose GPT if it supports it, MBR if it doesn’t. Say OK and continue later.

11 freebsd disk bolumu secimi

It automatically made the necessary partitions and brought them to us. If we say Finish, all will be confirmed and the installation will begin. But I don’t want to setup like this, “swap” I’m going to raise the field a little more. You can think of swap as virtual memory space in Windows systems. Although it is not necessary to create the system to set up the system under normal conditions, it is recommended to have twice the amount of RAM to avoid problems when the RAM is not enough or the computer goes to sleep.

It automatically created 1 GB here, and since I gave my virtual machine nearly 2.5 GB of RAM, I want the swap area to be at least 2 GB. Actually, I need to make 5 GB for it to be stable, but for now I will create it like this, if we want to allocate a larger space after installation, it is possible to do this.

12 freebsd disk bolumleme

Let’s come to the Delete section with the “TAB” key and delete the sections by selecting them with the up and down keys. Only the freebsd-boot partition should remain. We will create the rest ourselves. For this, let’s go to Create with “TAB” and say “ENTER”.

13 freebsd disk bolumleme 2

The first partition I will create will be the area where I will install the system. It is important that you write the Type part correctly here, because the installation understands what type of disk partition (swap, storage, boot) you have created. You should write how many GB you want to allocate to “Size”.

Mountpoint, on the other hand, allows us to determine what the partition we created in the system will be used as. I want this partition to be root folder by doing / . If you want to distribute subdirectories such as /tmp and /var to different disks, you can create separate partitions for it. I don’t prefer it because I don’t like separate uses. In the partition you created as I did, the system will be completely in / under a single volume.

14 freebsd disk bolumu ayarlama

I separate the second part as the “swap” area. For this reason, we need to write freebsd-swap as a type. I give the size an average of 2GB and leave Mountpoint blank and say OK.

15 freebsd swap alani ayarlama

Our disk partitioning process is finished, now we can start the installation by clicking Finish.

16 freebsd disk bolumleri son hal

It is stated that changes will be made on the disk structure and the files will be permanently deleted. We have three options; Continuing by saying Commit, reverting with Revert & Exit to exit, returning to the menu with Back.

We call it Commit. After this step, the installation will finally start. Depending on your USB memory, disk and processor, the copying speed of the files may vary, but it can be said that it does not take too long.

17 freebsd disk silinme onay

18 freebsd dosyalar kopyalaniyor

After the files are finished copying, we will see a black screen like this. It asks for the password of the root user to be determined. Let’s write a strong password that we will not forget without using Turkish characters. The password you type will not look like *** or normal in any way, so you have to be a little more careful.

19 freebsd root kullanicisi olusturma

To configure our network settings, we need to choose our network interface. If the Wi-Fi connection is visible for you, you can connect it, if not, you can continue with the normal wired connection. After the system is turned on, you can overcome these problems by installing the drivers you need.

20 freebsd network tanimlama

It says, let’s configure the network in accordance with the IPV4 standard. We say yes.

21 freebsd ipv4 aktiflestirme

DHCP It asks you if you want to assign an IP address automatically. If you want to set a fixed IP in your local network, if you want to get No automatically from your modem, you need to continue with the Yes option.

22 freebsd dhcp aktiflestirme

23 freebsd dhcp ip aliniyor

This time it asks if we want to make the appropriate settings for the IPv6 protocol. Since many operators in our country do not support IPV6, I continue by saying No. like TurkNetIf you are using an internet service provider that offers IPV6 to its customers, you can proceed with the Yes option.

24 freebsd ipv6 aktiflestirme

Here is the domain we are connected to and it asks us to set our DNS configuration. As we are home users, we leave Search as it is. It can also be any DNS of your choice as the DNS address. I wanted to use Google DNS. If you leave this blank or fill it with incorrect values, you cannot access the sites because the domain you entered while surfing the internet cannot be resolved to the IP address. For this reason, let us remind you that it is an important setting.

25 freebsd dns ayarlama

26 freebsd dns ayarlama 2

Now we need to choose our region and set our date and time settings. Since Turkey is referred to as Europe, we come to Europe and call it Turkey.

27 freebsd bolge secimi

28 freebsd ulke secimi

It tells us if the +03 time format suits us. Let’s continue with the acceptance. Turkey uses the GMT+3 summer time zone.

29 freebsd saat tarih secimi

We choose the day, month, year. If you are already connected to the internet, it automatically pulls this information.

30 freebsd gun secimi

Here, it can show the time up to 3 hours ahead. Since it is an insignificant detail that can be adjusted after installation, we can proceed by saying Skip or Set Time.

31 freebsd saat secimi

It asks us which services to start at system startup. Here we have 7 options again. If we take a look one by one;

  • local_unbound : Allows using local DNS caches. If you don’t trust your internet service providers, you can check this option so that your DNS queries are returned to your local and answered. I did not need such a feature, I had already selected Google DNS at the “Network Configuration” stage.
  • sshd : The service required to use the SSH protocol. This protocol allows you to securely access your computer remotely and run terminal commands. Consider the encrypted and secure version of telnet, and “sshd” is the service that will provide it. I prefer to build.
  • moused: Since FreeBSD did not come with any desktop environment when it was first installed, you must tick this service if you want to use a mouse on the console.
  • ntpdate : A feature to automatically synchronize your system and network clock at boot time. It uses the protocol called NTP. I don’t mark it because I don’t need it, but even if it is checked, there is no problem.
  • ntpd : Similar to the “ntpdate” service, we can say that it is a daemon (system process) that does the same job during the normal operation of the system. I didn’t choose it, but it can be used optionally.
  • powerd : A service for dynamically adjusting the processor frequency. If your processor supports it, you can save power by using your computer with low or high frequency speeds as needed. Although it is a feature that works on laptops, I do not prefer to use it.
  • dumpdev : It stores the dumps of possible crashes and errors on the system kernel under /var/crash. In case of any problem, a solution can be produced by looking at these dumps. Therefore, I think it is useful to mark the dumpdev option.

After making the appropriate selections for ourselves, we can proceed with the installation by saying “OK”.

32 freebsd servis aktiflestirme

showing that we are finally nearing the end of the installation. “System Hardening” We are in phase. This stage offers us 11 nice features that we can activate for system security. Let’s quickly explain what they are.

  • hide_uids : It is used to start processes secretly from other users. As you know, Unix-like distributions such as FreeBSD are developed for many users to work on a system. There may be processes that are confidential and important that some users do not want others to see. This feature can be helpful in hiding running services and software. As a home user, I personally do not need such a feature. Even if I experience an undesired hijacking situation, because of this feature, an attacker can execute hidden processes from me in the background. That’s why I didn’t mark it.
  • hide_gids : It does the same as the “hide_uids” feature, but with one difference, it allows processes to be hidden from certain user groups. If you have different user groups working on a single machine and you want them not to see each other’s processes, you can activate this option. For the home user, I must say that it is again unnecessary.
  • hide_jail : Since FreeBSD is an operating system that is used a lot, especially as a server, it can be the target of hackers in such uses. If any of the more than one service running on a server is compromised, a structure called “jail” is generally used by system administrators so that the others are not affected. Jails work like a kind of subsystem. Thanks to the feature in this option, some processes running in the background can be hidden from jails. If you are setting up a server, it can be useful in terms of security, but it does not appeal to normal users.
  • read_msgbuf : An option that prevents unauthorized users from viewing kernel output with the “dmesg” tool. It works for security in multi-user environments, but I can’t say that I personally recommend it for home use.
  • proc_debug: Prevents unauthorized users from debugging processes.
  • random_pid : Makes newly created processes have random PID numbers. It can be selected optionally.
  • clear_tmp : Automatically cleans the /tmp directory every time the system boots up. It may be useful in some cases in terms of privacy, but I don’t need it.
  • disable_syslogd : It prevents the “syslogd” tool, which is used to distribute and save system logs, from communicating over the network. When it comes to corporate environments, unusual movements in the system can be understood by the logs collected with the help of “syslogd”. When this option is checked, the “syslogd” software is run with the -ss parameter, preventing it from connecting over the network. For the home user, we can say that it does not matter whether it is opened or not.
  • disable_sendmail: Used to disable the Sendmail service.
  • secure_console: If you enable this option, if you boot the system with a single user, it will ask you to enter the “root” password.
  • disable_ddtrace : “ddtrace” It is a process for dynamically monitoring the status of services and system. If you check this option, “ddtrace” will be turned off.
  • enable_aslr : Activates the memory security feature called Address Layout Randomization. If we explain what ASLR does, we can give an example as follows. Under normal conditions, programs always work with the same address layout. When you run the software on the debugger and you see that the same commands start to run at different addresses each time, it is possible to say that ASLR has been used. On 64-bit Windows systems, it is enabled by default for use in supported programs, while it is turned off in BSD variants such as FreeBSD. You can tick this option to activate. It gives you some, if not all, protection from buffer overflow-style vulnerabilities.

I did not need to open any of these settings. I will proceed directly.

33 freebsd sistem guvenlik ozellikleri

We previously set a password for the root user, now we need to create a new user account for our normal work. Let’s continue by saying yes.

34 freebsd yeni kullanici olusturma

Here he will ask us for some information. We leave our username in the Username field, our name and surname in Full Name, leave the first option as Login group blank and write wheel in the second one. This group is important in terms of expressing that we can rise to root privileges when appropriate. We leave all other options as they are and continue with “Enter”.

It will ask Enter password to enter our last password. Let’s underline that there is no indicator that shows us whether it was entered when entering our password, as we did when determining the “root” password. Therefore, make sure that you have written it properly and after setting the password, keep the default settings and continue with “Enter”.

35 freebsd yeni kullanici olusturma 2

Finally, it shows us whether we accept the information we re-entered or not. While answering this with yes, when asked whether we want to add another user, we say no and press “Enter”.

36 freebsd yeni kullanici olusturma 3

The screen showing that the installation is finished appears. Let’s exit by saying Exit.

37 freebsd kurulum bitis

It asks if we want to make final adjustments to the chroot environment before the new system is manually booted. Let’s say yes. Although we will not make any adjustments, we will try some terminal commands just before turning on the system.

38 freebsd kurulum bitis 2

We type exit and press “ENTER” to save the configuration changes we have made and exit.

39 freebsd chroot ortamindan cikis

A screen appears showing that all stages of the installation have been completed. If you want to continue from the Live CD mode, select the relevant option, if you want to boot the normal system, select Reboot. After rebooting the computer, it will boot from FreeBSD.

40 freebsd installer reboot ekrani

A screen like this will appear when the system boots up. Let’s start FreeBSD by saying “1”.

41 freebsd ilk acilis

It will ask us to enter our username and password. Immediately after entering CLIWe will fall into the environment. FreeBSDwe have to install it ourselves as it doesn’t come with any desktop environment internally.

42 freebsd cli ekran

Before starting our operations, let’s check our internet connection. I’m sending a ping request to Google with the ping command. If it is answered, we can say that there is no problem with our connection. CTRL+CYou can stop with

43 freebsd ping atma

I can access root privileges by entering the password of my root account with the help of the su command. We can say that this user has the highest rights in Unix-like systems. Using the operating system as root is very risky in terms of security, as it allows you to make almost any change in the system. We will overcome this problem by installing and configuring the tool called sudo, which we are used to from Linux distributions. When we need it, instead of being root, we will be able to execute commands that ask for authorization using sudo with our current user.

FreeBSDThe package manager we’ll be covering in pkg . We install our tool by saying pkg install sudo. We continue by saying y to all of the options that appear. If you don’t want to deal with it, if you write the command as pkg install -y sudo with the -y parameter, all of them will be answered y without asking you and the installation will take place.

44 freebsd sudo kurulum

Likewise by saying pkg install nano nano I’m also installing my text editor. We will often make use of this tool when editing the configuration files needed to run the desktop environment.

45 freebsd nano kurulum

After doing these steps, let’s exit the “root” user by saying exit. When we try to increase the authorization level of our normal user by saying sudo su, we will get an error saying that the “sudoers” file is not attached. To edit this file, we become “root” by saying su again and enter the visudo command.

With the help of the opened Vi editor “sudoers” We can update the file. Just below the line that says root ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL, I add the wise user as wise ALL=(ALL) ALL. You can leave the space just before the last “ALL” statement with the “TAB” key.

To explain this in the simplest way, it allows the smart user to run any command with high rights using sudo. Actually, we could not do this and give this permission to the wheel group by removing the # sign at the beginning of the # %wheel ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL line just below. Because if you remember during the installation phase, we added our user to the wheel group. I preferred to authorize my user directly because it is more controllable.

To save our changes and exit the Vi editor, first press ESC on the keyboard, then make the : sign and type wq and press enter.

46 freebsd visudo yapilandirma

Now, with the help of sudo su command, we can reach high privileges by using our own user.

47 freebsd sudo test

Before we can install the desktop environment, we need to have a display server. We can say that image servers are the most basic structure in which the images and windows on the screen are drawn and communication is provided in operating systems. Due to the fact that it works well for this job in Linux and BSD distributions. X.Org preferable. We also have our FreeBSD system xorgwe will establish.

We install the image server with the pkg install xorg command. It may take a while as it will download and install a large number of packages, we wait patiently for our tea and coffee.

48 freebsd xorg kuurlum

xorg After the installation is finished, we need to add our user account to the video group so that it can start properly after the desktop environment installation. In FreeBSD you can add users to a private group as pw groupmod GroupName -m UserName.

I successfully include my account in the video group with the pw groupmod video -m wise command. When we restart the system and check it by saying id, we confirm that our process has been successful.

51 freebsd kullanici grubu ekleme

After doing all these operations, we need to set up a desktop environment of our choice. Since I love MATE, I preferred to do the narration in the guide through this DE. The procedures required for others may vary in part, but are mostly similar.

I give the command pkg install -y mate.

49 freebsd mate kurulum

Now we will install a “session manager” so that we do not encounter a black screen when the system boots up and do not have to manually start the desktop environment. My advice is “slim” It will be lightweight, and you don’t need to do anything extra for configuration in session manager specific. pkg install -y slim. Right after the package is installed it tells us that we need to make some edits in rc.conf.

50 freebsd slim oturum yoneticisi kurulum

Let’s edit the commands that will run at system startup with nano /etc/rc.conf. By default we have an rc.conf file as in the picture.

52 freebsd varsayilan rc.conf dosyasi

We’re going to add three lines here for both “slim” and for MATE to work properly. If we briefly explain what these are;

  • dbus_enable : It is a system service that enables processes to communicate between various interfaces. For example, “dbus” ensures that windows and programs work properly in the desktop environment you have installed on the X image server. If this feature D-BusMakes it active.
  • hald_enable: A feature that provides the access necessary for the system to use the hardware. HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) is called. Programs communicating with D-Bus perform various functions in hardware with “hald”. For example, when you insert or remove a flash memory, open the CD slot on your old computer, HAL does this job on Unix-like systems. To activate it, we must set this option to “YES”.
  • slim_enable: The feature we use to activate the Slim session manager we have installed.

After making the settings as you see below, you can exit the editor with the keyboard combinations CTRL + S and CTRL + X.

53 freebsd rc.conf duzenlenmis

Just before restarting the system and starting to use it, we need to do one last thing. We must enter the command to start the desktop environment in the init (the service that continues to run until the system shuts down in UNIX-like systems) configuration file of the X server. Otherwise, the “slim” session manager will welcome us, but the MATE we have installed will not open.

For this, we call nano .xinitrc and write exec mate-session in it. CTRL + S, CTRL + XSave and exit with

54 freebsd .xinitrc duzenleme

Now we can reboot the system with the reboot command and get our graphical interface.

When the session manager welcomes us, let’s enter our username and then our password. It may not accept Turkish characters, if you encounter this situation, if you enter your password according to the English keyboard layout, the problem will disappear.

55 freebsd oturum acma ekrani

MATE before us. Although it looks a bit primitive in this state, I can say that it is a great desktop environment if it is organized. The best part of this kind of free software is that you can customize it however you want.

56 freebsd masaustu ortam

It is possible to get an average image like this without changing the background and installing an extra theme from the settings. If you have followed all the steps correctly, congratulations. You have installed your first FreeBSD system.

57 freebsd masaustu ortam 2 1

viewed from afar FreeBSD Operating systems that have a text-based installation and require some Unix knowledge seem like an overly difficult thing to install. But actually it is not like that at all. If you pay attention to all the steps we have done throughout the narration, it consists of reading what comes before us, choosing the appropriate option and installing a few programs. But we can say that even this adds a lot to people. If you have patiently read and followed the guide thoroughly, you now know a lot of the basics about BSDs and Unix-like systems in general.

You learned how to install FreeBSD from scratch, which security settings should be used in which situations, how to activate various system services and how to install a desktop environment on a system with only CLI. We hope it was useful. You can write comments for your criticisms and open a topic on Technopat Social for your questions.

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